90 Vegetarian Capsules ( SKU: 9331U )
- Offers a natural source of PEA from non-GMO safflower oil
- Micronized for improved bioavailability
- Includes 400 mg of PEA in each capsule, allowing for easy and clinically relevant amounts
- Suitable for vegetarians and vegans
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenously produced lipid produced in microglia and mast cells, where it downregulates the activation of both cell types. PEA is a type of fatty acid ethanolamine that helps maintain neurological health by organizing the body’s response to cellular damage and supporting natural anti-inflammatory pathways.*1,2 It may also help alleviate occasional pain.*3,4 Its effects are mediated via direct activation of PPAR-alpha and GPR55 receptors, and potentially by indirect activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors and the TRPV1 channel (i.e., the capsaicin receptor).5,6
Emerging evidence shows that PEA plays an important role in pain perception. It is found in higher amounts in areas of the brain involved in nociception, and clinical trials have demonstrated broad effectiveness for the relief of occasional pain both alone and in combination with standard treatment.7,8,9 In addition, PEA may help support healthy endothelial function, normal intraocular pressure, and a healthy mood.10,11,12
Contains no artificial colors, preservatives, or sweeteners; no dairy, starch, sugar, wheat, gluten, yeast, soy, corn, egg, fish, shellfish, animal products, salt, tree nuts, or GMOs. Suitable for vegetarians/vegans.
Suggested Usage: 1 capsule 1–3 times per day or as directed by a health care professional.
No known contraindications exist, though safety during pregnancy and lactation has not been established.13
Currently, there are no known drug interactions. PEA has been used in clinical trials by itself for occasional pain, as well as in conjunction with citalopram, pregabalin, gabapentin, amitriptyline, oxycodone, and duloxetine.
- Skaper, S.D., Facci, L., Barbierato, M., et al. (2015). Molecular Neurobiology, 52(2), 1034-1042.
- Keppel Hesselink, J.M., & Kopsky, D.J. (2015). Journal of Pain Research, 8, 729-734.
- Artukoglu, B.B., Beyer, C., Zuloff-Shani, A., et al. (2017). Pain Physician, 20(5), 353-362.
- Paladini, A., Fusco, M., Cenacchi, T., et al. (2016). Pain Physician, 19(2), 11-24.
- Rinne, P., Guillamat-Prats, R., Rami, M., et al. (2018). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 38(11), 2562-2575.
- Petrosino, S., & Di Marzo, V. (2017). British Journal of Pharmacology, 174(11), 1349-1365.
- Skaper, S.D. & Facci, L. (2012). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 367(1607), 3312-3325.
- Gatti, A., Lazzari, M., Gianfelice, V., et al. (2012). Pain Medicine, 13(9), 1121-1130. PMID: 22845893
- Marini, I., Bartolucci, M.L., Bortolotti, F., et al. (2012). Journal of Orofacial Pain, 26(2), 99-104. PMID: 22558609
- Strobbe, E., Cellini, M., Campos, E.C. (2013). Investigative Ophthalmology & Vision Science, 54(2), 968-973.
- Gagliano, C., Ortisi, E., Pulvirenti, L., et al. (2011). Investigative Ophthalmology & Vision Science, 52(9), 6096-6100.
- Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, M., Ghajar, A., Shalbafan, M.R., et al. (2018). Journal of Affective Disorders, 232, 127-133.
- Nestmann, E.R. (2016). Food Science Nutrition, 5(2), 292-309.